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I now have a genuine GT a 82 JD 314


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#1 JDBrian OFFLINE  

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Posted April 22, 2011 - 12:00 PM

JD 314 - 4.jpg

Hi folks

I picked up an 82 314. The guy I bought it from had given it a quick and not so good paint job but it looks in better than average shape to me. He had it only a year and lost interest in restoring it. The front tires and seat have been replaced. The rear tires are original and cracked badly, but still holding air. They have very little wear. The air filter and engine oil looked recently changed and the hydro filter looked new as well. There was no deck(not an issue for me) and no evidence that it had been used for mowing -dusty underneath but no grass clippings anywhere.
The engine was cranky and ran rough, needing some choke to run at higher speeds even when warm but it did not smoke at all. The hydro was quiet and seemed to have a lot of guts -it surprised me- I backed it up a steep concrete walkway at low speed and it didn't slow down at all. The frame had a bit of surface rust here and there but the sheet metal is all solid with no deep rust. So I took it home.
The ground wires were a mess so I replaced them with 4g automotive cables, cleaned the connections to the coil, tightened the spark plug connector (I think it was loose) and put in a new plug. It runs better now, starts instantly but still needs choke for a long time and vibrates a lot at lower speeds. The carb settings and points/timing are next on my list. I am suspicious of the coil as I seemed to get different resistance readings on the HT side at different times -10,600 -8500ohms? It may be breaking down. Can I use an automotive coil from Napa?
I have no experience with these big single Kohlers. They are LOUD. The exhaust really barks. One other thing -I am getting run on after shutdown and about a second or 2 after the engine stops it backfires out the muffler. If anyone has any hints on getting this running properly I'd appreciate it.

Thanks
Brian

Attached Thumbnails

  • JD 314 - 1.jpg
  • JD 314 - 2.jpg


#2 NUTNDUN OFFLINE  

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Posted April 22, 2011 - 12:22 PM

Sounds like it is lean, I would richen the top end an 1/8th to 1/4 turn and go from there. You can use an automotive style coil as that is basically what they are. Run on can be caused by a bunch of things, could be gas being bad, timing, carb leak. Looks like a very nice tractor and once you get the little bugs worked out of it I am sure you will enjoy it that much more.

Kohlers do have a sound all their own.

#3 JDBrian OFFLINE  

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Posted April 22, 2011 - 12:46 PM

Thanks George

I forgot to mention that the first thing I did was drain the tank, flush some fresh fuel through the lines and install a new fuel filter. I will check the carb mounts and gaskets. The fuel pump filled the new filter very quickly so it seems to be working fine. There is something amiss somewhere. I am going to re measure the coil and see if I get consistent readings. I have the service manual, so I will check and record the existing carb settings and see how they compare with the factory defaults. Thanks for the suggestions.

Brian

#4 jj69chev OFFLINE  

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Posted April 22, 2011 - 12:56 PM

nice looking tractor, you could always cut the top off the muffler and pack it with muffler glass. I did this on my 112, and its much quieter with a lower tone.

#5 caseguy OFFLINE  

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Posted April 22, 2011 - 05:41 PM

I know that this is probably a stupid question, but did you completely disconnect the coil before checking the resistance. Other stuff in the circuit can throw off the readings, most notably the condenser. Just thought I'd ask.

Oh and BTW congrats on the new tractor!

#6 JDBrian OFFLINE  

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Posted April 22, 2011 - 07:22 PM

I know that this is probably a stupid question, but did you completely disconnect the coil before checking the resistance. Other stuff in the circuit can throw off the readings, most notably the condenser. Just thought I'd ask.

Oh and BTW congrats on the new tractor!


Yes, I had the coil wires disconnected. This afternoon I took a look at the points. They are severely pitted on both contacts. I tried to clean them but the pitting is too deep. I also checked the carb settings as compared to the default settings in the service manual. The idle jet was set to 3 turns which is 1/2 turn richer than the manual says and the high speed was at 2 1/8 turns, almost a full turn leaner than the manual setting of 3 turns. It seems to be running lean at high speeds and you need to use some choke for about 10 minutes . I put it all back together with the stock settings and it wouldn't start. Almost but not quite. The plug was wet so I may have disturbed the point gap or timing when I cleaned them. I will do some more troubleshooting soon but I really need to give the engine a full tune up -points, condenser, coil, and carb kit in order to know I have a good starting point. There are a few other things that need to be dealt with. I want to go over all the wiring as well. The PO was installing tail lights and ran wiring but never hooked it up to anything. The seat is way to far forward for me , and the front axle / steering / wheel bearings are a bit loose to name a few things. That will keep me busy while the parts are coming in. I hope to get this running reliably in the next month or so for my wife to use this summer. The 2320 is too big for her to maneuver in the close quarters around the house.

Brian

#7 MH81 ONLINE  

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Posted April 22, 2011 - 09:44 PM

As for the backfire, always bring it down to idle for at least a minute before shutting it down. The Backfire supposedly isn't good for them.
  • middleageddeere said thank you

#8 olcowhand ONLINE  

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Posted April 22, 2011 - 09:54 PM

This type of backfire is usually occurring inside the muffler. After shutdown, the engine coasts down, but is still sucking in a fuel air mixture. This ends up inside the hot muffler, where red hot carbon ignites it. It can blow a muffler off, or part sometimes. The run-on could be brought on by a lean mixture as George said, but may be simple carbon buildup, acting like a glow-plug.
  • middleageddeere said thank you

#9 JDBrian OFFLINE  

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Posted April 23, 2011 - 05:39 AM

This type of backfire is usually occurring inside the muffler. After shutdown, the engine coasts down, but is still sucking in a fuel air mixture. This ends up inside the hot muffler, where red hot carbon ignites it. It can blow a muffler off, or part sometimes. The run-on could be brought on by a lean mixture as George said, but may be simple carbon buildup, acting like a glow-plug.


Thanks for the input everyone. This is a steep learning curve/review for me as I haven't worked on engines since I was a teenager. I want to get a head gasket and check for carbon buildup in the head but I hadn't thought about the muffler. I need to make a list of parts and order them. The governor spring is almost warn through as well. The engine is surging a bit when not under load. I'll need to find a source of parts and I may mail order them. Locally, the JD dealer is my best shot at getting parts quickly but the prices on some parts are high, while others are competitive. I'll have to shop around.

#10 JDBrian OFFLINE  

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Posted April 24, 2011 - 06:14 AM

Hi folks


I found that the points were barely opening. They must have been out of adjustment and I disturbed them enough to stop it from starting. I gapped them to .o20 and the engine runs much better, sounds different- quieter, and does not backfire or run on when shutdown. I need to adjust the low speed jet. I was able to adjust the high speed but the engine is vibrating badly at low speeds. I found a broken rear motor mount so that needs to be dealt with soon. The part is available from JD for 33$. The engine is also spewing oil out of the crankcase vent. After running for 15minutes it dripped 5 or 6 drops out the breather casing. Hopefully it is not blow by causing this. Maybe the breather is plugged or not assembled correctly. Maybe the vibration is causing more oil to be splashed around?
I am building a parts list. Does anyone have a good source of Kohler parts? I also need a governor spring and lever. The existing ones are nearly worn through. The engine was surging but after adjusting the HS jet it smoothed out. It may have been running like that for awhile. This is a great learning experience/review on small engines.

Regards

#11 NUTNDUN OFFLINE  

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Posted April 24, 2011 - 07:47 AM

If it isn't smoking bluish white smoke when it is running I doubt that it is blow by. I don't know what type of breather setup the Kohler has but some of them have a reed valve setup for the breather and can be serviced.

#12 JDBrian OFFLINE  

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Posted April 24, 2011 - 11:30 AM

No, it doesn't smoke and the exhaust doesn't smell like it is using oil. The breather is a reed valve type with some sort of filter in it. The service manual lists it as being a problem area if it is plugged or assembled wrong. Some people do not understand how the reed valve works and remove it completely. I'll have to disassemble it. It is a big bonus to have the Kohler manual available.

#13 jj69chev OFFLINE  

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Posted April 27, 2011 - 05:21 PM

napa is a good source of parts for kohlers

#14 JDBrian OFFLINE  

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Posted April 27, 2011 - 07:33 PM

I had another look at the Ser. No. list and it is actually a 83. I ordered the tune up stuff and governor parts from opeengines. I ordered a new motor mount and some bushings to tighten up the steering, the grill emblem and steering wheel decal from jdparts. I got some tail lights, tie rod ends and front wheel bearings locally. I will have lots to do when I get the time to get at it. Does anyone here know where the ignition timing marks are on a Kohler 321? Do I have to take off the blower cover to see them on the flywheel?

Thanks

#15 Tmo OFFLINE  

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Posted April 28, 2011 - 06:11 AM

Here is the serial number list for a 314:

Model 314 Kohler 14HP K321AQS

Year Serial Number Range
1979 95001-120000
1980 120001-155000
1981 155001-190000
1982 190001-222000
1983 222001-285000





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