Sounds to me like you may have a stuck center sheave in the variator itself. This part moves back and forth on the variator hub to change the speed of both the drive belt and the driven belt. If it does not move, you are having to manually move the variator via the pedal to engage the driven (belt to transmission) side. I know there is a tech manual on the 200 series JD
's on this site that should give you an idea of how the variator is constructed and how to remove it for repair. I bought a variator (used) that had a stuck center sheave and with a pry bar and some lube I was able to free it. Remember, once you have it loose to clean off the oil/penetrating oil you may have used and spray with some type of dry lubricant to prevent oil from getting on the belts and causing slipping. Hope this helps - just an idea. For more discussion on variators visit the weedend freedom machines website Weekend Freedom Machines
search the forums for 110 or 112 variator and you should come up with some other ideas if that is not the case. It could also just be a severly stretched rear drive belt too.